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  1. #1
    Senior Member adreno's Avatar
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    1. Heroin



    Class A drug. Originally used as a painkiller and derived from the opium poppy. There were 897 deaths recorded from heroin and morphine use in 2008 in England and Wales, according to the Office of National Statistics (ONS). There were around 13,000 seizures, amounting to 1.6m tonnes of heroin.



    2. Cocaine



    Class A. Stimulant produced from the South American coca leaf. Accounted for 235 deaths – a sharp rise on the previous year's fatalities. Nearly 25,000 seizures were made, amounting to 2.9 tonnes of the drug.



    3. Barbituates



    Class B. Synthetic sedatives used for anaesthetic purposes. Blamed for 13 deaths.



    4. Street methadone



    Class A. A synthetic opioid, commonly used as a substitute for treating heroin patients. Accounted for 378 deaths and there were more than 1,000 seizures of the drug.



    5. Alcohol



    Subject to increasing concern from the medical profession about its damage to health. According to the ONS, there were 8,724 alcohol deaths in the UK in 2007. Other sources claim the true figure is far higher.



    6. Ketamine



    Class C. A hallucinogenic dance drug for clubbers. There were 23 ketamine-related deaths in the UK between 1993 and 2006. Last year there were 1,266 seizures.



    7. Benzodiazepines



    Class C. A hypnotic relaxant used to treat anxiety and insomnia. Includes drugs such as diazepam, temazepam and nitrazepam. Caused 230 deaths and 1.8m doses were confiscated in more than 4,000 seizure operations.



    8. Amphetamine



    Class B. A psychostimulant that combats fatigue and suppresses hunger. Associated with 99 deaths, although this tally includes some ecstasy deaths. Nearly 8,000 seizures, adding up to almost three tonnes.



    9. Tobacco



    A stimulant that is highly addictive due to its nicotine content. More than 100,000 people a year die from smoking and tobacco-related diseases, including cancer, respiratory diseases and heart disease.



    10. Buprenorphine



    An opiate used for pain control, and sometimes as a substitute to wean addicts off heroin. Said to have caused 43 deaths in the UK between 1980 and 2002.



    11. Cannabis



    Class B. A psychoactive drug recently appearing in stronger forms such as "skunk". The subject of intense controversy over its long-term effects and capacity for inducing schizophrenia. Caused 19 deaths and there were 186,000 seizures, netting 65 tonnes of the drug and 640,000 cannabis plants.



    12. Solvents



    Fumes inhaled to produce a sense of intoxication. Usually abused by teenagers. Derived from commonly available products such as glue and aerosol sprays. Causes around 50 deaths a year.



    13. 4-MTA



    Class A. Originally designed for laboratory research. Releases serotonin in the body. Only four deaths reported in the UK between 1997 and 2004.



    14. LSD



    Class A. Hallucinogenic drug originally synthesised by a German chemist in 1938. Very few deaths recorded.



    15. Methylphenidate



    Class B drug. Brand name of Ritalin. A psychostimulant sometimes used in the treatment of attention deficit disorders.



    16. Anabolic steroids



    Class C. Used to develop muscles, notably in competitive sports. Also alleged to induce aggression. Have been blamed for causing deaths among bodybuilders. More than 800 seizures.



    17. GHB



    Class C drug. A clear liquid dance drug said to induce euphoria, also described as a date rape drug. Can trigger comas and suppress breathing. Caused 20 deaths and 47 seizures were recorded.



    18. Ecstasy



    Class A. Psychoactive dance drug. Caused 44 deaths, with around 5,000 seizures made.



    19. Alykl nitrites



    Known as "poppers". Inhaled for their role as a muscle relaxant and supposed sexual stimulant. Reduce blood pressure, which can cause fainting and in some cases death.



    20. Khat



    A psychoactive plant, the leaves of which are chewed in east Africa and Yemen. Also known as qat. Produces mild psychological dependence. Its derivatives, cathinone and cathine, are Class C drugs in the UK





    http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/20...rous-drug-list

  2. #2
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    Bullshit. What was this ranked on? Addictive potential? Surely tobbaco should be number one or at least in the top three, especially accounting for the number of deaths per year it is responsible for. GHB is also dismissed as a minor player at number 17 but addcition is easy and can end in death for people who lack the understanding of how to use it properly. LSD higher than GHB? haha



    It also doesn't take into account the sheer number of drugs that are out there. There are plenty of other lethal drugs out there that can kill and are more addictive than most of what is on here.

  3. #3
    Senior Member sluggy's Avatar
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    List is pretty useless.



    Sugar would be number one or two with tobacco, and alcohol. The rest is good old british bs.

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    Quote Originally Posted by slugs View Post
    List is pretty useless.



    Sugar would be number one or two with tobacco, and alcohol. The rest is good old british bs.


    Haha I like this.



    Agreed, typcial ignorant sensationalist Brittish newspaper. Idiots!

  5. #5
    Senior Member adreno's Avatar
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    Here's the original text from the Lancet, explaining how the drugs were rated:



    [attachment=8080:scale_drugs.pdf]
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  6. #6
    Senior Member MeDieViL's Avatar
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    This study has been done by prof nutt from the UK, wich was fired because of publishing this:

    David J. Nutt is a British psychiatrist and neuropsychopharmacologist specialising in the research of drugs which affect the brain and conditions such as addiction, anxiety and sleep.[1] He is a professor at the University of Bristol heading their Psychopharmacology Unit.[2] He also holds the Edmond J Safra chair in Neuropsychopharmacology at Imperial College, London.[3] Nutt is a member of the Committee on Safety of Medicines, and is on the Council and is President of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology.[4]



    Career



    Professor Nutt studied medicine at the University of Cambridge, graduating in 1972 and completing his clinical training at Guy's Hospital in 1975. Before this he completed his secondary education at Colston's School, Bristol. He worked as a clinical scientist at the Radcliffe Infirmary from 1978 to 1982. From 1983 to 1985, he lectured in psychiatry at the University of Oxford. In 1986, he was the Fogarty visiting scientist at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in Bethesda, MD, just outside of Washington, D.C. Returning to the UK in 1988, he joined the University of Bristol as director of the Psychopharmacology Unit. In 2009, he then established the Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Molecular Imaging at Imperial College, London, taking a new chair endowed by the Edmond J Safra Philanthropic Foundation.[5] He is an editor of the Journal of Psychopharmacology.[6]

    His current research focuses on brain circuits and receptors in anxiety and addiction, and on the pharmacology of sleep. This involves the study of GABA receptors, using labelled subtypes of GABA 5, and serotonin, or 5-HT, receptors. Type 1 5-HT receptors seem to be especially important in depression and the action of anti-depressants.[2]




    Take in mind they looked at many things, including physical harm, dependency and social harm, mixed togheter the table can give some suprising results, in the other graph they made a difference for each danger:



    This is the result of a simular study being done in the netherlands.



    Purple= Damage to the body, Orange= Social damage, Green= Damage to the society.
    Prophet currently looking for a new job

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  7. #7
    Senior Member adreno's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by slugs View Post
    List is pretty useless.



    Sugar would be number one or two with tobacco, and alcohol. The rest is good old british bs.


    Sugar is not a drug, it's a nutrient.

  8. #8
    Senior Member MeDieViL's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by thorsten View Post
    Haha I like this.



    Agreed, typcial ignorant sensationalist Brittish newspaper. Idiots!
    This is not just sensationalism thorsten, take a look at the background of david nutt .



    They mixed togheter society damage etc in the table hence why the results can be suprising.
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  9. #9
    Senior Member adreno's Avatar
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    What I find interesting, is that both alcohol and tobacco, two socially accepted drugs, are much higher on the list than, for instance MDMA.

  10. #10
    Senior Member MeDieViL's Avatar
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    The last dutch study has been carried out by the goverment of the netherlands.
    Prophet currently looking for a new job

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  11. #11
    Senior Member sluggy's Avatar
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    AS per the WHO defintion: "A drug, broadly speaking, is any substance that, when absorbed into the body of a living organism, alters normal bodily function."



    Sugar isn't a drug?

  12. #12
    Senior Member adreno's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by slugs View Post
    AS per the WHO defintion: "A drug, broadly speaking, is any substance that, when absorbed into the body of a living organism, alters normal bodily function."



    Sugar isn't a drug?


    It's a carbohydrate. According to your line of reasoning, proteins and fats would be drugs too.

  13. #13
    Senior Member sluggy's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by adreno View Post
    It's a carbohydrate.


    No kidding..



    Drugs are usually distinguished from endogenous biochemicals by being introduced from outside the organism.

    For example, insulin is a hormone that is synthesized in the body; it is called a hormone when it is synthesized by the pancreas inside the body, but if it is introduced into the body from outside, it is called a drug.



    Sugar is a drug. And from the sounds of how defensive you're getting, I'd guess that you'd probably an addict.

  14. #14
    Senior Member MeDieViL's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by adreno View Post
    What I find interesting, is that both alcohol and tobacco, two socially accepted drugs, are much higher on the list than, for instance MDMA.
    I'm not suprised haha, alcohol is a pretty horrible drug, its benign when taken once weekly, but for many it doesnt stop there.



    Take a look at this:



    Alcoholism-associated molecular adaptations in brain neurocognitive circuits



    This release is available in Spanish.



    After many years of heavy drinking, alcohol produces pathological alterations in the brain. In many alcoholics these changes culminate in massive social deterioration and disorders of memory and learning. Severe cognitive impairments occur in approximately 10% of heavy drinkers. Alcoholic dementia is the second leading course of adult dementia in the Western countries, accounting for 10% of the cases, and still represents an unresolved problem. So far no effective pharmacotherapy for memory problems in alcoholics is available.



    Nowadays this problem can be approached by innovative research using molecular and epigenetic analyses, which yield new insight into brain pathophysiology. Molecular dysregulations in endogenous opioids – a neurotransmitter system in the brain that is central to reward function and pain control – are supposed to play a critical role in the development of alcoholism and associated cognitive impairment.



    Professor Georgy Bakalkin, involved in a research team focusing on biochemical mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders, will highlight the latest findings on this clinical challenge and presents a novel mechanism and understanding of cognitive deficit in human alcoholics. Thereby an emerging concept that proposes a new target for pharmacotherapy will be discussed, which might lead to innovative therapeutic interventions to improve or prevent alcohol-induced cognitive impairment in patients with alcohol dependence, and may be generalized to other learning and memory disorders.



    ###
    [Neurophysiologic findings in chronic alcohol abuse]

    [Article in German]



    Müller D, Koch RD, von Specht H, Völker W, Münch EM.



    Abstract

    Neurophysiological examinations of 100 long term alcohol dependent patients who were having neuropsychiatric treatment, showed symptoms of polytopic damage of the peripheral and central nervous system. The results show that for recognition of the damage an extensive diagnostic programme must be used.
    Alcoholic diseases in hepato-gastroenterology: a point of view.

    Testino G.



    Unit of Hepatology and Alcoholic Diseases, Department of Specialistic Medicine, S. Martino Hospital, Genova, Italy. testinogia@tiscalinet.it

    Abstract

    Alcohol damages every organ and system in the body. The most important effects from a clinical point of view relate to diseases of the circulatory, nervous and hepato-gastrointestinal systems. In the digestive tract the effects range from increased intestinal transit time and gastrophaties, leading to classical early morning nausea and diarrhea, through to significant malabsorption and chronic pancreatitis. In this review the mechanisms of alcoholic damage have been evaluated with particular reference to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In particular, the natural history, the influence due to host genetic susceptibility and due to cofactors (i.e. hepatitis C virus), the clinical features and the hepatocarcinogenesis mechanisms have been evaluated. Finally, a possible role of abstinence in association with pharmacological therapy in the course of steatohepatitis has also been evaluated.


    Alcohol is pretty damn horrid with chronic use, and the ammount of ppl getting addicted is pretty shocking too, so a well deserved place on those tables!
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  15. #15
    Senior Member MeDieViL's Avatar
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    LMAO, make a new thread to discuss sugar etc perhaps guys?
    Prophet currently looking for a new job

    Getting rich or dying trying, or might as well let others enjoy my posts made on the limitless pill. But as you know, they are the best.

  16. #16
    Senior Member sluggy's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by MeDieViL View Post
    LMAO, make a new thread to discuss sugar etc perhaps guys?


    Sorry Medievil, adreno is a bit slow..

  17. #17
    Senior Member adreno's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by slugs View Post
    No kidding..



    Drugs are usually distinguished from endogenous biochemicals by being introduced from outside the organism.

    For example, insulin is a hormone that is synthesized in the body; it is called a hormone when it is synthesized by the pancreas inside the body, but if it is introduced into the body from outside, it is called a drug.



    Sugar is a drug. And from the sounds of how defensive you're getting, I'd guess that you'd probably an addict.


    Saying it over and over won't make it true.

  18. #18
    Senior Member sluggy's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by adreno View Post
    Saying it over and over won't make it true.


    Crying about it like a little bitch doesn't make it not a drug.





    If you can read: The Reclassification of Sugar as a Drug

    One of many articles written for the ignorant such as yourself.

  19. #19
    Senior Member adreno's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by slugs View Post
    Crying about it like a little bitch doesn't make it not a drug.





    If you can read: The Reclassification of Sugar as a Drug

    One of many articles written for the ignorant such as yourself.


    Wow, the Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal? That's very impressive...



    Some undergraduate wants to reclassify sugar as a drug? Is that the best you can do?



    Reclassifying it, btw, implies that sugar is already classified as not a drug. Let's see what else he writes: "Sugar is traditionally classified as a food", "under select dietary circumstances, sugar can have effects similar to a drug of abuse", "I will argue that sugar in fact has many drug-like properties that need to be taken into consideration when classifying this substance purely as a food".



    So, no, sugar is not classified as a drug. Not even according to your article.

  20. #20
    Senior Member sluggy's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by adreno View Post
    Wow, the Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal? That's very impressive...



    Some undergraduate wants to reclassify sugar as a drug? Is that the best you can do?



    Reclassifying it, btw, implies that sugar is already classified as not a drug. Let's see what else he writes: "Sugar is traditionally classified as a food", "under select dietary circumstances, sugar can have effects similar to a drug of abuse", "I will argue that sugar in fact has many drug-like properties that need to be taken into consideration when classifying this substance purely as a food".



    So no, sugar is not classified as a drug. Not even according to your article.




    The point that you're missing is even an undergraduate can see that sugar is a drug.

    Hahahahaha.. You know what, I really pity you.

    By all definitions except the pharmaceutical, sugar is a drug. I'm not going to waste my time if you can't see that.



    So sure adreno, for you sugar isn't a drug. Eat up buddy!

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